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Understanding Multimedia Documents
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Understanding Multimedia Documents
von: Jean-Francois Rouet
Springer-Verlag, 2008
ISBN: 9780387733371
289 Seiten, Download: 3763 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Understanding Multimedia Documents 2  
     Foreword 5  
     Contents 6  
     Contributors 8  
  Understanding Multimedia Documents: An Introduction 11  
     1.1 Introduction 11  
     1.2 A general Framework for the Study of Complex Document Comprehension 13  
     1.3 Memory Processes in Multimedia Comprehension (Section 1) 14  
     1.4 Contextual Strategies in Document-Based Learning (Section 2) 17  
     1.5 Multimedia Research in Perspective (Section 3) 20  
     1.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 22  
     References 23  
  Why Multimedia Learning is not Always Helpful 26  
     2.1 Introduction 26  
     2.2 Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning 27  
        2.2.1 Types of Cognitive Load 28  
        2.2.2 Differential Effects of Multimedia Presentations 29  
     2.3 Animation in Multimedia Learning 31  
        2.3.1 Differential Effects in Learning from Static and Animated Pictures 33  
        2.3.2 Learning from Different Kinds of Animations 36  
     2.4 A Closer Look on the Enabling and Facilitating Function of Multimedia 39  
        2.4.1 The Zone of Proximal Development from a Cognitive Load Perspective 39  
        2.4.2 Cognitive Load Effects of Manipulation and Simulation Pictures 43  
        2.4.3 Constraints on Germane Cognitive Load 45  
     2.5 Conclusions 47  
     References 49  
  Text and Picture Integration in Comprehending and Memorizing Spatial Descriptions 51  
     3.1 Introduction 51  
     3.2 Theoretical Framework 52  
        3.2.1 Spatial Mental Models and the Role of Imagery in the Comprehension of Spatial Texts 52  
        3.2.2 Visuo-Spatial Working Memory in Comprehending Spatial Descriptions 53  
        3.2.3 Discourse-Picture Integration in Spatial Descriptions: An Empirical Study 55  
     3.3 Experiment 1 57  
        3.3.1 Method 57  
           3.3.1.1 Participants 57  
           3.3.1.2 Materials 57  
           3.3.1.3 Procedure 58  
        3.3.2 Results and Discussion 58  
     3.4 Experiment 2 60  
        3.4.1 Objectives 60  
        3.4.2 Method 61  
           3.4.2.1 Participants 61  
           3.4.2.2 Materials and Procedure 61  
        3.4.3 Results and Discussion 61  
     3.5 Conclusions 63  
     References 64  
  Display of Key Pictures from Animation: Effects on Learning 68  
     4.1 Introduction 68  
     4.2 Multimedia Instruction for Understanding Dynamic Systems 69  
        4.2.1 Multimedia Animations as Instructional Devices 69  
        4.2.2 Does Animation Improve Learning? 70  
        4.2.3 Cognitive Load and the Design of Multimedia Instruction 73  
        4.2.4 Research Hypotheses 75  
     4.3 Experiment 75  
        4.3.1 Method 75  
           4.3.1.1 Participants and Design 75  
           4.3.1.2 Material and Apparatus 76  
           4.3.1.3 Procedure 77  
        4.3.2 Results and Discussion 77  
           4.3.2.1 Study Time 77  
           4.3.2.2 Time Spent in the Retention and Transfer Tests 78  
           4.3.2.3 Score for Retention and Transfer Tests 78  
           4.3.2.4 Subjective Evaluation 79  
        4.3.3 Discussion 80  
     4.4 Conclusion 82  
     References 83  
  Levels of Verbal Redundancy, Note-Taking and Multimedia Learning 86  
     5.1 Introduction 86  
     5.2 Theoretical Background 87  
        5.2.1 The Cognitive Load Theory 87  
        5.2.2 The Generative Theory of Multimedia Learning 88  
        5.2.3 Redundancy in Document Comprehension 88  
           5.2.3.1 Redundancy Defined as Superfluous Information 89  
           5.2.3.2 Redundancy and Learners’ Prior Knowledge 89  
           5.2.3.3 Redundancy Associated with Multiple Presentation Formats 90  
        5.2.4 Study Objectives 91  
     5.3 Experiment 1 93  
        5.3.1 Method 94  
           5.3.1.1 Subjects 94  
           5.3.1.2 Materials 94  
           5.3.1.3 Dependent Measures 96  
           5.3.1.4 Procedure 97  
        5.3.2 Results 97  
           5.3.2.1 Performance 97  
           5.3.2.2 Subjective Evaluation 98  
        5.3.3 Discussion 99  
     5.4 Experiment 2 100  
        5.4.1 Objectives 100  
        5.4.2 Method 102  
        5.4.3 Results 102  
           5.4.3.1 Learning Outcomes 102  
           5.4.3.2 Analyses of Students’ Impressions 102  
        5.4.4 Discussion 103  
     5.5 Discussion and General Conclusion 104  
     5.6 Appendix 106  
     References 106  
  Learning from a Multimedia Explanation: A Comparison of Static Pictures and Animation 109  
     6.1 Introduction 109  
     6.2 Constructing Mental Models from Multimedia Documents 110  
        6.2.1 Constructing Mental Models from Texts and Pictures 110  
        6.2.2 Processing Static and Dynamic Illustrations 111  
        6.2.3 Auditory Presentation of Verbal Information 114  
     6.3 Experiment 115  
        6.3.1 Rationale 115  
        6.3.2 Method 116  
           6.3.2.1 Participants 116  
           6.3.2.2 Materials 116  
           6.3.2.3 Procedure 119  
        6.3.3 Results 120  
           6.3.3.1 Data analysis 120  
     6.4 Discussion and Conclusions 121  
     References 123  
  Search and Comprehension Processes in Learning from Text 126  
     7.1 Introduction 126  
     7.2 Theoretical Background 127  
        7.2.1 Cognitive Processes in Searching for Information in Documents to Answer Questions 127  
        7.2.2 Differential Processes Involved in Answering Questions 129  
        7.2.3 The Role of Strategic Monitoring and Comprehension in Answering Questions from Text 131  
     7.3 Empirical Studies of Text Search 133  
        7.3.1 Experiment 1: Reading a Text and Answering Questions 134  
           7.3.1.1 Method 134  
           7.3.1.2 Results 139  
           7.3.1.3 Discussion 142  
        7.3.2 Experiment 2: Searching for Information to Answer Questions 143  
           7.3.2.1 Method 144  
           7.3.2.2 Results 144  
           7.3.2.3 Discussion 147  
     7.4 General Discussion and Conclusions 149  
     References 151  
  Searching User-Controllable Animations During Learning 153  
     8.1 Introduction 153  
        8.1.4 Negative Effects of Animation 155  
        8.1.4 Searching Animation 156  
     8.2 Using User Control 157  
        8.2.1 Is User Control Effective? 157  
        8.2.2 Methodological Challenges in Characterizing User Control 158  
     8.3 Investigating User Control 160  
        8.3.1 Integrating Multiple Data Sources 161  
        8.3.2 Data and Analysis 162  
        8.3.3 User Control Strategies and Tactics 165  
        8.3.4 Example Results 167  
     8.4 Conclusion 169  
     References 170  
  Studying Eye Movements in Multimedia Learning 172  
     9.1 Introduction 172  
     9.2 The Added Value of Studying Eye Movements in Multimedia Learning 173  
     9.3 The GazeTrackerTM Software 175  
     9.4 Experiment 176  
        9.4.1 Objectives 176  
        9.4.2 Method 179  
           9.4.2.1 Participants and Design 179  
           9.4.2.2 Apparatus 179  
           9.4.2.3 Materials 179  
           9.4.2.4 Procedure 181  
        9.4.3 Results and Discussion 182  
     9.5 General Discussion and Conclusions 184  
     References 186  
  The Interaction of Verbal and Pictorial Information in Comprehension and Memory 188  
     10.1 Introduction 188  
     10.2 Experiment 1 190  
        10.2.1 Objectives 190  
        10.2.2 Method 191  
           10.2.2.1 Participants 191  
           10.2.2.2 Materials and Procedure 191  
        10.2.3 Results and Discussion 193  
           10.2.3.1 Comprehension Times of Results Sections 193  
           10.2.3.2 Interest Ratings 194  
           10.2.3.3 Recognition of Results Description in Text 194  
           10.2.3.4 Recognition of Results Depiction in Graph 195  
           10.2.3.5 Confidence in Text Recognition 195  
           10.2.3.6 Confidence in Graph Recognition 195  
     10.3 Experiment 2 196  
        10.3.1 Objectives 196  
        10.3.2 Method 196  
           10.3.2.1 Participants 196  
           10.3.2.2 Materials, Procedure, Apparatus, and Design 196  
        10.3.3 Results and Discussion 197  
           10.3.3.1 Comprehension Times of Results Sections 197  
           10.3.3.2 Gaze Durations on Text 197  
           10.3.3.3 Gaze Durations on Graphs 198  
           10.3.3.4 Eye Movements Between Text and Graph 199  
           10.3.3.5 Interest Ratings 199  
           10.3.3.6 Recognition of Results Description in Text 199  
           10.3.3.7 Recognition of Results Depiction in Graph 199  
           10.3.3.8 Confidence in Text Recognition 200  
           10.3.3.9 Confidence in Graph Recognition 200  
     10.4 General Discussion and Conclusions 200  
     10.1 Appendix 202  
     References 203  
  Hypertext Was Born Around 1200 205  
     11.1 Introduction 205  
     11.2 Analyzing Reading Tools of Ancient Books: Methodological Aspects 207  
        11.2.1 Documentation Sources 207  
        11.2.2 Study Limitations 207  
     11.3 A Short History of Book Reading Tools 208  
        11.3.1 The Linear Codex: A Device to Memorize Orally Transmitted Knowledge 208  
           11.3.1.1 The Codex as a Major Shift in the Structuring of Textual Materials 208  
           11.3.1.2 Links Between Written Text and Orality 208  
           11.3.1.3 Oral Tradition vs. Written Memory 209  
        11.3.2 The Birth of Non-linearity in the Written Text 209  
           11.3.2.1 Reading Tools Needed Page as a Crucible to Develop 209  
           11.3.2.2 Divisions and Marks in Greater Variety 210  
           11.3.2.3 An ‘‘Embryo’’ of Non-linearity in Text and Reading 210  
           11.3.2.4 Written Text to Transmit the Fixed Word of God 212  
        11.3.3 How Written Text Became an Efficient Non-linear Artifact 212  
           11.3.3.1 Reading Tools Were Made for Readers 212  
           11.3.3.2 A New, ‘‘Radical’’ Reading Activity During the 13th Century 213  
           11.3.3.3 Reading Tools to Support Non-linear Reading 214  
           11.3.3.4 Two Important Tools: Index and Table of Contents 214  
        11.3.4 The Generalisation of Non-linearity 215  
           11.3.4.1 Text Secularization Increased the Need for Reading Tools 215  
           11.3.4.2 New Systematic Reading Tools to Renew Knowledge 216  
           11.3.4.3 Xylography and Gutenberg’s Press Allowed the Generalisation of Non-linear Books 217  
     11.4 Going Back to Non-linearity Principles 217  
        11.4.1 Standardized Reading Tools Made Non-linear Reading Efficient 217  
        11.4.2 Linear vs. Non-linear Documents 218  
        11.4.3 Linear vs. Non-linear Uses of Text and Hypertext 220  
     11.5 Conclusions 221  
     References 222  
  From Film and Television to Multimedia Cognitive Effects 225  
     12.1 Introduction 225  
     12.2 Medium Specificity and Television Comprehension 226  
        12.2.1 Early Studies of Film Viewers’ Attitude 226  
        12.2.2 Theories and Empirical Evidence About TV Viewers 228  
        12.2.3 Towards a Functional Definition of Mental Effort 229  
        12.2.4 A Comparability Problem 233  
     12.3 Comparisons Focused on Similar Cognitive Text Requirements 235  
        12.3.1 Experiment 1: Restoring Coherence in Television Viewing and in Reading 235  
           12.3.1.1 Hypotheses 236  
           12.3.1.2 Method 236  
           12.3.1.3 Results 238  
        12.3.2 Experiment 2: Comparison Between a Literary and a Film Creative Text Comprehension 239  
           12.3.2.1 Hypotheses 239  
           12.3.2.2 Method 240  
           12.3.2.3 Results and Discussion 241  
     12.4 Text Comprehension and Multimedia Comprehension 242  
     12.5 Conclusion and Research Perspectives 244  
     Notes 246  
     References 247  
  How Should We Evaluate Multimedia Learning Environments? 250  
     13.1 Introduction 250  
     13.2 First Generation Experiments 251  
        13.2.1 Positive Features 252  
        13.2.2 Negative Features 253  
     13.3 The Need for Alternative Approaches to Evaluating Multimedia Learning 256  
        13.3.1 Who Benefits from Learning with (Specific Forms of) Multimedia? 257  
        13.3.2 How do People Learn with Multimedia? 259  
        13.3.3 How does Learning with Multimedia Change Over Time? 261  
        13.3.4 How does the Wider Context Influence Learning with Multimedia? 262  
     13.4 Conclusion 263  
     References 264  
  Memory Processes in Text and Multimedia Comprehension: Some Reflections and Perspectives 267  
     14.1 Introduction 267  
     14.2 Comprehension as a Complex Task Involving Costly Components 268  
        14.2.1 Comprehension is Goal-Directed 268  
        14.2.2 Comprehension is a Real-Time Activity 269  
        14.2.3 Comprehension as a Strategic Activity 271  
     14.3 On the Coordination of Components Skills in Comprehension 272  
        14.3.1 Two Different Coordination Mechanisms 272  
        14.3.2 Automaticity and its Limits 274  
        14.3.3 Adapting the Processing/Comprehension Rhythm 275  
     14.4 Challenges and Perspectives for Multimedia Research 276  
        14.4.1 Interventions in Textual Formulations and Document Design 276  
        14.4.2 Improving Readers’ Processing of Texts and Documents? 277  
     References 278  
  Author Index 281  
  Subject Index 288  


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