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Peace Psychology in the Balkans - Dealing with a Violent Past while Building Peace
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Peace Psychology in the Balkans - Dealing with a Violent Past while Building Peace
von: Simić, Zala Volčič, Catherine R. Philpot
Springer-Verlag, 2012
ISBN: 9781461419488
248 Seiten, Download: 2837 KB
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)


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  Acknowledgements 6  
  The Editors 8  
  Contents 10  
  Contributors 12  
  Chapter 1: Peace Psychology in the Balkans: In Times Past, Present, and Future 18  
     Contributions of Research and Practice in the Balkans to Peace Psychology 20  
     The Balkan Region 22  
     Explaining the Past 24  
     Examining the Present 26  
     Envisioning the Future 28  
     References 30  
  Part I: Explaining the Past 32  
     Chapter 2: Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Post-Communist Romania 33  
        Zoom Out: The Demographic-Economic Account 34  
           Demography 35  
           Economy 37  
           Migration 38  
           The Demographic-Economic Account and Romanian-Hungarian Ethnic Conflict 38  
        Zoom in: History, Ideology, and Identity 40  
           Changing Foundational Myths and National Enemies 41  
           Reciprocal Fear, Manipulation, and Mobilization 42  
        Ethnic Reconciliation: The Post-Communist Identity Shift 44  
           Socio-Economic Collapse and the Resurrection of the Pro-Western Orientation 45  
           Pro-Western Orientation and Interethnic Tolerance 46  
        Conclusion 47  
        References 48  
     Chapter 3: Theories of Ethnocentrism and Their Implications for Peacebuilding* 51  
        Ethnocentrism 53  
        What Causes Ethnocentrism? 55  
           Ethnocentrism Is Caused by Threat and Insecurity 56  
              Realistic Group Conflict Theory 56  
              Authoritarian Personality Theory 57  
              Terror Management Theory 57  
              Summary and Implications 58  
           Ethnocentrism Is Caused by Self-Aggrandizement 59  
              Social Identity Perspective 59  
              Elite Theory 60  
              Social Dominance Theory 60  
              Threat and Self-Aggrandizement Integration: The Dual Process Cognitive-Motivational Theory 61  
              Summary and Implications 61  
           Ethnocentrism Is Caused by Preference for the Similar 62  
              Belief Congruence Theory 62  
              Optimal Distinctiveness Theory 63  
              Summary and Implications 63  
           Ethnocentrism Is Caused by Proneness to Simplification 64  
              Role of Ignorance 64  
              Summary and Implications 65  
           Ethnocentrism Is Caused by Social Factors 66  
              Summary and Implications 66  
           Ethnocentrism Is Caused by Evolutionary Factors 67  
              Summary and Implications 68  
        Summary and Conclusions 68  
        References 69  
     Chapter 4: Transforming Violent Masculinities in Serbia and Beyond 73  
        Introduction: The Problem, Definitions and Issues 74  
        Performativity and Psychology of Gender and the Concept of Hegemonic Masculinity 75  
        Shadow 78  
        Masculinity Wars 83  
        Alternative Peace-Oriented Masculinities 84  
        Conclusion 87  
        References 87  
     Chapter 5: Making or Breaking the Peace: The Role of Schools in Inter-Ethnic Peace Making 90  
        Introduction 91  
        Schools as Socialization Space 91  
        National Identity and Inter-Ethnic Conflict 93  
        Education, Curriculum and Conflict 95  
        The Place of Schools in Creating a Preferred Future 99  
        References 100  
  Part II: Examining the Present 103  
     Chapter 6: Journalistic Views on Post-Violent Peacebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina 104  
        Theoretical Background 107  
        Brief Political Context: The Case of “Dobrovoljacka” 108  
        Methodology 109  
        Newspapers’ Representation of Events on May 2nd and 3rd 1992 110  
        Journalists on Dobrovoljacka and Post-Violent Peacebuilding in BIH 113  
           Meaning and Representation of the Case of Dobrovoljacka 113  
           The Role of Media in Co-Creating Post-Violent Peacebuilding 114  
           Journalistic Work in Covering War Crimes 115  
        Discussion and Conclusion 117  
        References 120  
     Chapter 7: War Through Other Means: Examining the Role of Symbols in Bosnia and Herzegovina 122  
        The Political Role of Symbols: A Brief Theoretical Outline 123  
        Nationalism Through Symbols in Post-War Bosnia–Herzegovina 125  
        National Symbols in Post-Yugoslav Bosnia–Herzegovina 126  
        Representing then Nation: The Main Motifs of Croat, Serb and Muslim Nationhood 126  
        Mostar: Symbolic Representations of the Croat-Muslim Divide 132  
        Banja Luka: Undermining the Serb Republic with a Mosque 133  
        The Symbolism of Religious Buildings 135  
        Shared Symbols, Shared Space 136  
        Think BIG, Think BiH 136  
        Bruce Lee and Mostar: Global Pop Culture as a Symbol of Reconciliation 139  
        Conclusion 140  
        References 141  
     Chapter 8: Imagine Being Alone: Making Sense of Life in Contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina by Remembering the Past 142  
        Dramaturgicality of Everyday Life 144  
        Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Society in Transition 145  
        Contextualizing the Present Study 146  
        Methodology 147  
        Findings and Discussion 148  
        Esma in her Changing Society 149  
        Esma in her Changing Neighborhood 149  
        Esma Between Two Worlds: Communalism Versus Individualism 151  
        Concluding Remarks 152  
        References 153  
     Chapter 9: Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in a Sample of Bosnian Young Adults: Ten Years After the War 155  
        Introduction 156  
        Method 158  
           Participants 158  
           Materials and Procedure 159  
        Results 161  
           Description of War Events 161  
           Current Stress 161  
           Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms 161  
           Associations Between Current Stress and Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms 163  
        Discussion 164  
        References 166  
     Chapter 10: Family in Exile: Examining the Risk and Resilience of Refugees in Serbia 169  
        Introduction 169  
        Family in Exile: Post Displacement Stressors 171  
           Living Conditions 171  
           Accommodation Within Host Families 172  
           Accommodation in Collective Centres (Refugee Camps) 172  
           Integration into Local Community and Its Labour Market 173  
           Unemployment and Poverty 174  
        Family in Exile: Pre-Displacement and Displacement Stressors 175  
        What Can We Do in Order to Improve the Way Refuges Live? 177  
        A Systemic Family Approach 179  
        Conclusion 183  
        References 184  
  Part III: Envisioning the Future 186  
     Chapter 11: Parallel Worlds of Divided Community: Time Does Not Make Much Difference 187  
        Theoretical Background of the Study 188  
        Integroup Attitudes in a Divided Community 189  
        Social Background of the Study 190  
        Studying Interethnic Relations Among Young People Living in the Post-Conflict Community 192  
        Method 193  
           Participants 193  
           Measures 194  
           Procedure 195  
        Results 195  
        Discussion 200  
        Conclusions 204  
        References 205  
     Chapter 12: OpenOption : Roma, Discrimination, and Peace Building in Macedonian Šuto Orizari 209  
        Introduction 210  
        The Background of the Project OpenOption 211  
           Šuto Orizari, the First Roma Municipality in Europe 211  
           The Decade for Roma Inclusion 2005–2015 and the National Strategy for Roma 211  
           Presentation of Teatrino Clandestino and Theatre Roma: The Encounter 213  
        The Genesis of OpenOption: Common Problematic Space 213  
           Resisting Structural Violence Against Roma: A PoliticalPhilosophy Laboratory in Šuto Orizari 213  
           Why Are Roma the Last in Society?: Roma and Cultural Violence 215  
        In Pursuit of Social Justice: OpenOption as a Peacebuilding Project 216  
           Towards a New Imaginary 216  
           “What Is the Contemporary?”: Roma Enlightening Contemporariness 218  
           OpenOption – The Title and Its Meaning 220  
           Roma, A Nation Without a State and War 220  
        Conclusion: A Theater with Open Doors 221  
        References 222  
     Chapter 13: Overcoming Ethnic Hatred: Peacebuilding and Violent Conflict Prevention in Divided Societies 225  
        Introduction 226  
        Marginalization in the Ethnic Nation: The Roma and Hungarian Minorities in Romania 227  
           The Roma Minority 228  
           The Hungarian Minority 233  
        Conflict Prevention in Romania 234  
        Overcoming Ethnic Hatred: Lessons for Ethnic Conflict Management 236  
        Conclusion 241  
        References 242  
     Chapter 14: Coming to Terms with the Past Marked by Collective Crimes: Collective Moral Responsibility and Reconciliation 245  
        Introduction 246  
        Dealing with the Past 246  
        Why Collective Moral Responsibility Matters? 247  
        Acknowledgment of Collective Responsibility 250  
        Self-affirmation Effects 252  
        Conclusion 252  
        References 253  
  Index 255  

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